Nations and supranational institutions are increasingly relying upon sanctions as a foreign policy tool. International arbitration users should be prepared to deal with the impact of sanctions on arbitration, particularly in disputes involving Mainland China, a recent target of sanctions and a jurisdiction where arbitration is one of the preferred dispute resolution mechanisms. Sanctions can affect the entire relationship between two commercial parties throughout a dispute, from performance of the contract through the conduct of the arbitration proceedings and the ultimate enforcement of the arbitral award. At the performance stage, parties in a commercial relationship potentially subject to sanctions can be faced with the difficult choice between either performing obligations under the contract and therefore triggering penalties under a sanctions programme or facing claims in arbitration for non-performance. Once arbitration proceedings have commenced, various complex substantive law issues may arise from arbitrability to frustration and the proper interpretation of force majeure clauses in the underlying contract between the parties. The panelists will consider these and other important sanctions related issues that can arise in the context of international arbitration.